HVDC ‘bootstraps’ are becoming a key option in the reinforcement of the transmission system. As the generation mix moves towards renewables, sources are becoming more dispersed and located further from load centres, requiring extensive transmission network upgrades to get the power to where it is needed. As a result of restrictions in space and consenting issues locating new circuits onshore, there has been a move to locate new circuits offshore. This requires long cable circuits, where HVDC technology must be used. This note explores how the choice of HVDC technology can affect the system integration challenge of the required upgrades to the transmission system. Download file below.